- Those with a family history of papillary thyroid cancer
- A personal or family history of goiters
- A history of radiation therapy to the thyroid area such as for: Bone marrow transplantation Mantle field radiation for lymphoma
- Exposure to high levels of radiation due to nuclear accidents or weapons testing
- Having a personal or family history of congenital syndromes such as Cowden’s syndrome (a disorder characterized by benign tumors of the skin and mucous membranes called hamartomas)
Papillary Thyroid Cancer Known Associated Genetic Mutations
Papillary thyroid cancer genetic abnormalities have largely been well identified following the human genome project and the cancer genome project.
- The two most common abnormalities associated with papillary thyroid cancers are the BRAF mutation and RET/PTC1 rearrangements (more commonly associated with the classical papillary thyroid cancer).
- RET/PTC3 rearrangements also occur but are much less common and associated more commonly with the solid variant of papillary thyroid cancers.
- Papillary thyroid cancer follicular variants more commonly reveal RAS mutations or PAX8/PPAR gamma rearrangements than the other more classic papillary thyroid cancers.
- Aggressive papillary thyroid cancer variants are potentially suggested by mutations of the TERT promoter, p53 or PI3kinase. To date, identifying these mutations does not translate to targetable treatment approaches and should not direct therapy above what is seen under the microscope (pathology) and Xray findings.